The Ebola virus disease is a severe, often fatal, with a mean mortality rate of 50-60%, but can reach up to 90%.
The infection is endemic in several species of bats but can be transmitted to humans, non-human primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees), and other mammals, is then transmitting therebetween.
This disease was detected for the first time in 1976 in two almost simultaneous outbreaks, one in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo and another in a village already across the border in southwestern Sudan.
Generally, the beginning of the chain of transmission is associated with a first contact of an individual with an animal infected by the Ebola virus.
Infection occurs by direct contact, by non-intact skin or mucous membrane, blood, or other bodily fluids or secretions (vomiting, diarrhea, semen, etc) of infected individuals. More rarely, the infection can also occur if the non-intact skin or mucous membranes of a healthy person coming into contact with objects or environments contaminated with infectious fluids from a patient, such as dirty clothing, linens, used needles, or other medical supplies.
Are typical signs and symptoms the sudden emergence of fever, extreme weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. Can be followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, renal and hepatic failure, and, in some cases, internal and/or external bleeding, multi-organ failure, shock, coma, and death.
The incubation period, or time between infection and the appearance of symptoms, is 2 to 21 days. The patient only becomes contagious when start to present symptoms. It is not contagious during the incubation period, or after healing.