Tick-borne diseases (TBD), long known but traditionally underappreciated, are increasingly recognized as important threats for global health. Even though the greatest economic impact of these parasites occurs in livestock, the influence on public health cannot be set aside. TBD are becoming an increasing and serious problem in Europe and are also responsible for major depressions in livestock production and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia.
In Europe, Lyme borreliosis, caused by the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria and transmitted by Ixodes ticks, is the most common tick-borne disease while tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) transmitted by Dermacentor ticks caused by Rickettsia slovaka as well as tick-borne viral encephalitis (TBVE) transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus are other representative human tick borne disease. Interactions between human and animal hosts, vectors and infectious disease agents are continuously changing, leading to clear emergence of infectious and zoonotic diseases.