The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a disease that is one of the major public health problems worldwide, especially in developing countries. The virus is transmitted through unprotected sex, contact with infected blood, breast milk and by vertical transmission.
The HIV target are certain immune system cells, CD4 + T cells which help in combating diseases, in particular infectious. The decreased activity of these cells leads to the appearance of opportunistic infections.
With regard to symptoms, acute infection occurs one to four weeks after the time of transmission. Some people exhibit symptoms similar to those of influenza, recovering, after this stage, and being without symptoms of disease, since there is a reduction in viral load.
Many infected people live many years with the disease without showing symptoms, although the virus is replicating itself in your body.
The last phase of the disease is referred to as AIDS and is characterized by a severe immune deficiency that leads to the appearance of opportunistic infections and often death.
It has not yet found a cure for AIDS. Currently, AIDS is a chronic disease. When treatment with antiretroviral drugs is started at an early stage of the disease, there is a very low probability of HIV progression to a symptomatic phase.