Differences between synthetic ß-haematin and native hemozoin crystals
- Autores: Carvalho P.A., F. Nogueira, L. Coelho, R.C. Martins
- Ano de Publicação: 2013
- Journal: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical
In this review of the literature, we distinguish between experimental and observational studies, highlighting the importance that the later have gained in the era of evidence-based medicine. We further analyze the value of observational studies in light of experimental studies. We present a taxonomy for observational studies based on units of observation and measurement (cross-sectional or longitudinal). We distinguish between descriptive studies and analytical studies.
The malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a serious public health problem in the world, due largely to the absence of an effective vaccine. There is a lack of information on the structural properties and antigens capable of activating the immunological mechanisms for the induction of protective immunity. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the serological reactivity of sera from individuals with imported malaria and identify major immunogenic proteins.
International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe.
Chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) are still the drugs of choice to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria in many endemic areas, Brazil included. There is in vivo evidence for the P. vivax resistance to CQ in the Brazilian Amazon, where the increase in the proportion of P. vivax malaria parallels the increase of unusual clinical complications related to this species. In this study, in vitro CQ and mefloquine (MQ)-susceptibility of P. vivax isolates from the Western Brazilian Amazon was tested using the double-site enzyme-linked lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection (DELI) assay.
The most efficient method for HIV-1 genetic characterization involves full-genome sequencing, but the associated costs, technical features, and low throughput preclude it from being routinely used for the analysis of large numbers of viral strains. Multiregion hybridization assays (MHA) represent an alternative for a consistent genetic analysis of large numbers of viral strains. Classically, MHA rely on the amplification by real-time PCR of several regions scattered along the HIV-1 genome, and on their characterization with clade-specific TaqMan probes (also known as hydrolysis probes).
Chad is one of the countries supported by the GAVI-Alliance that remains with unsatisfactory vaccination coverage. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better coverage.
In a search for effective compounds against both the blood- and liver-stages of infection by malaria parasites with the ability to block the transmission of the disease to mosquito vectors, a series of hybrid compounds combining either a 1,2,4-trioxane or 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane and 8-aminoquinoline moieties were synthesized and screened for their antimalarial activity.
Although many countries have improved vaccination coverage in recent years, some, including Guinea-Bissau, failed to meet expected targets. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better vaccination coverage in the context of the GAVI-Alliance (The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation) cash-based support provided to Guinea-Bissau.
Giardia duodenalis is the most prevalent intestinal protozoan infection especially in children. In Portugal scarce data are available relative to this infection in preschoolers. The present study was conducted from April to July 2009 in public preschools in Lisbon enrolling 316 children. Stool examination was performed through microscopy. Molecular analysis was conducted in all positive samples for G. duodenalis in order to determine the assemblage and subassemblage of this parasite.
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